Nausea Definition And Causes 2020

As described by MedicineHealth: “That rumbling, gurgling feeling in the pit of your stomach is something we all know. Once it begins to bubble, nausea can quickly lead to vomiting in some cases. Even when it’s the only symptom, nausea can ruin a good day, and may soon find you running for your medicine cabinet. But maybe you should be running for a glass of water, or even a natural remedy like ginger. Then again, depending on your symptoms, it’s possible that you should head directly to the doctor.

nausea

In this article, our medical experts provide details about home remedies and other treatments for nausea and vomiting. You will learn some of the common causes, such as pregnancy, morning sickness, and food poisoning, as well as foods that can ease an upset stomach. Discover the remedies that will help you take charge of your health, and the health of your family.

What’s Causing Your Nausea?

Causes of nausea include food allergies, stomach flu, migraines, diabetes, heart problems, and heart problems.
When your stomach is upset, even reaching for a glass of water can cause painful discomfort. But while you search for a remedy, you should consider the cause of your unease. In the case of this health symptom, the cause may be mild, but it may also be severe—sometimes even life-threatening.

Some of the relatively mild causes of nausea that can lead to vomiting include food allergies, stomach flu, food poisoning, acid reflux, and migraine headaches. Some of the more serious causes include head injury, diabetes, vertigo/stroke, heart problems, pancreatitis, appendicitis, accidental drug ingestion, bowel obstruction and cancer.

Staying Hydrated
Water and juice can be effective at relieving dehydration caused by nausea.
To prevent one of the worst results of nausea, be sure to stay hydrated. Thirst relief can be especially difficult when it’s hard to keep anything down. It’s even worse if your health symptoms include diarrhea. But even if you’re throwing up, some of the water you drink will be absorbed.

Dehydration can be mild or severe. Mild dehydration causes few problems, but in its severe form, dehydration can be life-threatening. Sometimes when a person begins to throw up dehydration comes on quickly.

Remember—water isn’t the only substance that can ease thirst. Tea—either hot tea or cold tea—can be a pleasant way to hydrate, and a decaffeinated choice is best. Sports drinks are good choices to, as is Pedialyte and similar drinks.

If you’ve just vomited, go slow. Start with a small amount of liquid—just a few tablespoons every few minutes to start. Slowly over time, increase the liquid as you’re able to hold it down.

If you’re worried about dehydration, ask yourself—are you urinating regularly? This is one of the clearest indications of whether or not you are getting enough to drink.

Foods for Nausea

Sports drinks offer better hydration than flat soda when dealing with the effects of nausea.
For a long time conventional health wisdom said to treat nausea with flat lemon lime soda or ginger ale. But this remedy has been put to the test, and it turns out sports drinks, Pedialyte and similar offerings do a better job of replacing fluids than flat soda.

With that in mind, here are some other strategies for keeping down food if you’re nauseous. Once you’ve quenched your thirst, move on to foods that are soft and bland. A few examples include plain yogurt, bread, and Saltine crackers. And eat your meals slowly, providing plenty of time to digest the small amounts of food you’re feeding yourself.

Sticking to Liquids
Finding liquid-based foods to eat can help ease your way back into nourishment during a bout of nausea.
While you’re just easing back into food, start with something that contains a lot of fluid. As far as home remedies go, you can’t do better for your health than see-through liquids. These tend to be especially effective remedies to ease nausea and quench dehydration. Good choices include Jell-O, popsicles, and soups with clear broths. Also good are the clearer juices, such as apple juice and cranberry juice.

Nausea Medication

Several drugs can help ease an upset stomach, but be careful giving these to children.
Often a bad bout of nausea and vomiting will go away on its own. The best thing to do in these cases is to wait for the health symptoms to ease on their own. Medicine may be a good choice if symptoms persist, though

If a child is the one suffering, exercise particular caution before administering an over-the-counter medicine. Don’t do so without the advice of a pediatrician. Many cold and flu medications are not for children, and ignoring the recommended use of these drugs could put your kid in harm’s way. Anti-nausea medication may lead to risks and complications if given to a small child.

For adults, different types of medications are available. There are chewable and liquid antacids like Pepto-Bismol and Emetrol, or motion sickness-controlling medicines like Dramamine and Bonine. If your nausea is ongoing, you may want to ask a doctor about a prescription. Watch out—anti-nausea medicines often lead to sleepiness. So use caution before driving or carrying out your daily responsibilities—you don’t want to cause harm because your body suddenly craves sleep.

Ginger and the Stomach
Ginger is a natural remedy for an upset stomach.
From ancient times to the present day, ginger has been used as a treatment for nausea pain. Ginger has a lot going for it. It’s widely available, generally safe, and many people like the taste. But is it effective as an antiemetic?

Researchers recently looked into ginger as a health remedy for upset stomach. They were particularly interested in learning whether ginger was useful in easing nausea and vomiting during pregnancy and chemotherapy. They found that ginger is an effective and well-established home remedy for both conditions.

According to the researchers, it’s not precisely known what makes ginger effective, but it may come down to a couple of its more pungent chemicals: gingerol and shogaol. So the next time you feel stomach pain, eating ginger may be the solution.

Morning Sickness and Pregnancy
Morning sickness is an all-too-common side effect of being pregnant, but there are some helpful natural remedies for morning sickness.
If you wake up nauseous from morning sickness or during pregnancy in general, you’re not alone. In fact, three out of every four pregnant women will experience morning sickness. Your chances go up if you have a history of migraine pain or if your stomach has been upset during previous pregnancies. If you are pregnant with twins, your odds of morning sickness increase even more.

One way to avoid morning sickness while pregnant is to frequently eat small meals. This allows your system time to digest food, but leaves relatively little food in your stomach at any given time. Always remember to drink plenty of fluids. Getting a breath of fresh air may be a helpful remedy as well. Some say eating watermelon and drinking lemonade can be effective home remedies for pregnant women—and if that suits your cravings, go for it!

Some studies suggest acupuncture can ease symptoms of morning sickness. This is usually done by putting pressure on the groove inside two large tendons of the wrist. Acupressurists call this area P6. Some are skeptical of this treatment. Studies have found that wristbands designed to ease stomach upset by putting pressure on the p6 point are difficult to use. These devices have failed to show any results for stomach upset caused by surgery. Acupressure at the p6 point may be no more effective for morning sickness than acupressure anywhere else.

When it’s Time to Call the Doctor
Sometimes nausea can become dangerous, such as when the sick person acts confused or may have consumed poison.
When every treatment and home remedy for nausea and vomiting isn’t enough, it may be time to put your health needs in the hands of a doctor. Here are red flags warning you that it’s time to seek professional medical intervention:

The sick person is less than 12 weeks old and has vomited more than one time;
The sick person shows dehydration signs;
You believe the sick person may have consumed poison;
The sick person acts confused, or has a stiff neck, rash, headache, high fever, or stomach pains;
The sick person’s vomit contains either blood or bile;
You suspect appendicitis;
The sick person is difficult to wake up;
The person has been vomiting for longer than eight hours; or
Anytime you are worried and feel a doctor’s supervision would be helpful.
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Cold and Flu: Finding Relief for Your Cough
Reviewed By: Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Reviewed on 11/30/2017
Why Are You Coughing?
Many natural remedies and over-the-counter and prescription medications soothe coughs.
There are many potential underlying reasons for a cough. A short-term cough lasts for 3 weeks or less. Colds and flu are some of the more common causes for these short-term coughs. Symptoms resolve on their own within days to weeks. Irritants like dust in your throat may make you cough. Postnasal drip from allergies can do it, too. Certain more serious medical conditions and medical side effects may also cause coughing. Regardless of what is making you cough, there are many remedies to help you feel better.

Home Remedies
Honey and lemon juice in water is a popular, effective home remedy for cough.
If you have a cough, there are several home remedies that can help ease your symptoms. Drink lots of fluids to thin mucus and make it easier for you to clear it out of your system. Use a vaporizer or cool-mist humidifier to soothe an irritated throat. There is some evidence that honey decreases the frequency and severity of a cough without side effects. Have some tea with honey before bed to ease your cough. Honey should not be given to young children under the age of 12 months because there is a risk that the baby could be sickened by botulism.

Other home remedies that may be effective include gargling with salt water or sipping on hot water with lemon juice. Add fresh ginger to boiling water. Let the mixture cool and add honey before sipping to soothe a cough or a sore throat. To make another remedy, add turmeric powder and black pepper to boiling water. Allow the drink to cool before sipping. Turmeric with black pepper is reportedly a good at-home, anti-viral cold remedy. If your cough is caused by a cold, take extra vitamin C during cold and flu season to reduce the duration and severity of cold symptoms. Vitamin C boosts the immune system. Chicken soup is an excellent home remedy that has several anti-inflammatory properties to ease cough and cold symptoms.

Try an Expectorant
An expectorant can help you get rid of mucus.
If you have a “wet” cough, otherwise known as a productive cough, try taking an over-the-counter expectorant medication to help you expel mucus. Expectorants are not appropriate for every type of cough. If you have emphysema, chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, or asthma, do not take an expectorant. Ask your doctor which type of over-the-counter cough medicine is right for you. Children under the age of 4 years old should not take cough and cold medicines. Check with your child’s pediatrician before administering any remedy to your little one.

Try a Cough Suppressant
Cough drops can help suppress a dry cough.
Sometimes you want to suppress a cough if it is caused by breathing in irritants like smoke, dust, or allergic particles. This kind of cough result when you have an annoying tickle in the back of your throat. Over-the-counter cough suppressants can help suppress the urge to cough. Another name for cough suppressants is antitussives. Cough suppressants may be available as either a liquid or as a cough drop. Cough drops are a choking hazard for young children under the age of 4. Do not give cough drops to young children. Ask your child’s pediatrician what kind of remedy is safe to use. VapoRub is a topical cough suppressant with medicated vapors that may be appropriate for children ages 2 and up.

A Warning about Cough Medicine and Young Children
Ask the pediatrician what kind of cough remedy is appropriate for your child.
Cough medicine should never be given to children under the age of 4 because it may be associated with serious side effects, or even death. Some cough and cold medications may be used in children between the ages of 4 and 6, but talk to your child’s pediatrician first. For young children who cannot have cough syrup, give them 1/2 to 1 teaspoon of honey in some warm water to help soothe a bad cough (however, do not give honey to children under 1 year of age due to potential for botulism). Honey may provide instant relief as a natural cough remedy.

Are Antibiotics Appropriate for a Cough?
Antibiotics are only appropriate if a bacterial infection is causing your cough.
Antibiotics treat bacterial infections, so they are not cough remedies. Antibiotics are not effective for treating coughs that are caused by cold or flu viruses. These kinds of coughs usually resolve in about a week if an underlying viral infection is causing the cough. If you are still coughing after one week, see your doctor. You may have a bacterial infection, like a sinus infection or pneumonia, that is causing your cough. In these cases, an antibiotic can help alleviate your symptoms. Sometimes the doctor will send a sputum sample away for laboratory analysis to identify the bacterium to prescribe the most effective antibiotic.

Allergies and Asthma Can Make You Cough
Asthma and allergies may make you cough.
Allergies can lead to itchy and watery eyes, postnasal drip, coughing, and other symptoms. Taking an over-the-counter antihistamine may help relieve your symptoms and dry out nasal passages so you cough less. Look for non-drowsy versions of allergy medication so you can still function during the day. Asthma is another condition that may be associated with coughing. Asthma is serious so see your doctor if you are wheezing for prescription medications to control your condition and minimize coughing. Take allergy and asthma remedies and medications regularly to keep your symptoms at bay.

Smokers’ Cough Can Be Serious
Smoking may lead to a chronic cough.
People who smoke develop a characteristic cough that may be worse in the morning. Smoking damages small brush-like projections called cilia that line the airways. They help remove mucus and dirt from your respiratory tract. When cilia are damaged, they cannot remove debris and you will cough. Smoking also irritates airways and may lead to inflammation and bronchitis. Another potential cause of coughing in smokers is cancer. See your doctor if you develop a new or unusual cough. If you quit smoking for a month, you should cough significantly less. If your cough does not go away or worsens, see your doctor. Smoking may also cause a sore throat and is one of the leading risk factors for developing lung cancer.

What Causes a Chronic Cough?

See your doctor to diagnose the cause of a chronic cough.
Coughs that last for more than 8 weeks are chronic coughs. Allergies and postnasal drip are potential underlying reasons for a chronic cough. Infections of the lower parts of the respiratory tract like the airways (bronchitis) and lungs (pneumonia) may also cause this type of cough. GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) and medication side effects may also cause coughing. Sometimes, coughing is a symptom of a more serious underlying condition like a blood clot in the lungs (pulmonary embolism), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, or heart failure.

When to See Your Doctor
Some symptoms along with cough may signal a more serious underlying condition.
Sometimes, a long-standing cough is a cause for concern and you should make an appointment with your doctor. Call your doctor if you develop any of the following troubling symptoms:

You have a deep, wet cough that produces lots of mucus and phlegm.
If you are wheezing or have shortness of breath, these may be symptoms of asthma or another serious condition.
You experience chest tightness.
If you have a fever that does not go away after a 3 day period.
If your cough lasts for more than 7 days without getting better, see the doctor.
If you cough so much at night that you cannot sleep, go see your doctor.
If you have chills in addition to your cough, see your physician.
If you have blood-tinged phlegm when you cough.
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Home Remedies for Sick Children
Reviewed By: Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Cold & Flu Symptoms in Children
Unfortunately, colds and the flu are very common in children.
Caring for a sick child brings extra stress and worry for everyone in the family—especially parents. Unfortunately, colds and the flu are very common in children. On average, kids can expect five or six colds a year before they start school. Some kids get as many as eight to 10 colds a year. It isn’t until they become teenagers that kids settle down to adult levels of cold infections, getting infected about four times a year on average.

Kids get sick a lot because they’ve never been exposed to the many common cold and flu viruses that most adults have already built immunities to. Building immunities takes time: many years, in fact. Plus, there are more than 200 different cold viruses, making the situation worse.

Unfortunately, colds cannot be cured. That’s why treatment is your first line of defense when it comes to fighting sickness in children. In this article, we will use the advice of medical experts to give you the best chances of easing your child’s cold and flu symptoms.

Fighting Cold Symptoms: Why Rest Is Best
Sleep is restorative, and it helps us recover from illness. This is why it’s important for your children to rest when they are under the weather. Keep them home from school or daycare if they are sick, especially if they have a fever. This will also help keep the germs from spreading to classmates.

Try to give them at least 8-10 hours of sleep.
Let them rest until they feel better.
One study indicated that the less sleep we get, the more likely we are to become infected after being exposed to a cold virus.
Even if your children do not sleep, it’s a good idea to limit their activity and keep them resting. Let them stay in bed and read them their favorite book or watch a movie.

Luckily there are many cold home remedies for kids. Parents can use the following tips and tricks to help kids feel better fast.

Fighting Kids’ Cold & Flu Symptoms: Keep Fluids Coming
Drink plenty of fluids – it’s important your child stays hydrated.
Drink plenty of fluids – it’s important your child stays hydrated. The body needs water to stay healthy, and when you are sick, it’s easy to become dehydrated from cold symptoms like

fever,
diarrhea,
vomiting, or
sweating.
Many medications such as decongestants can also have a drying effect.

Any liquid without caffeine is good:

water,
juice,
tea,
soup, and even
milk.
Popsicles or gelatin can also work.

How do you know if your child is getting enough fluids? His or her urine should be a light yellow color. Adequate hydration helps thin mucus secretions, making coughs and nose blowing more productive. Coughing and blowing the nose are two ways the body expels virus particles.

Cold Vs. Flu
How do you know if your child has a cold or the flu?
How do you know if your child has a cold or the flu? Both illnesses have similar symptoms so sometimes it’s difficult to tell.

How to Tell a Cold From a Flu
The flu comes on like a ton of bricks – it hits hard and fast and your child will usually feel worse than he or she does with the common cold.
Symptoms of the flu include fever, body aches, extreme tiredness, and dry cough.
Colds are usually milder than the flu and have symptoms such as a runny or stuffy nose.
Colds rarely move into the lungs.
Flus can cause pneumonia.
If you suspect your child has the flu, take them to the pediatrician. If the flu is diagnosed right away, there is medication that can help reduce the severity of the symptoms and duration of the illness.

Home remedies for flu for kids focus on relieving symptoms. Home remedies for cough for kids include using saline nasal drops and a humidifier. Home remedies can help additional symptoms as well.

Fighting Kids’ Cold & Flu Symptoms: Fever Relief
A fever is a sign the body is fighting off an infection, but it can also make your child feel worse.
A fever is a sign the body is fighting off an infection, but it can also make your child feel worse. There are some home remedies for fever in kids that include the following.

As with colds, let your child get plenty of fluids and rest.
Keep the room temperature cool (between 70° and 74° F).
Dress your child in lightweight pajamas.
Encourage your child to drink extra fluids, popsicles, and gelatin to stay hydrated.
Put on a fan to circulate cool air in the room.
If your child has the chills, give him or her an extra blanket, which can be removed once the chills stop.
Acetaminophen (Tylenol) along with a lukewarm bath may also help.
Fever Medicine? Ask a Doctor
Talk to your child’s doctor before giving medicine for a fever. Acetaminophen or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) can usually be given safely to bring down a fever. Here are some medications to avoid for children fighting flu:

Do not give any medications to infants under 2 months of age
Do not give ibuprofen to babies under 6 months of age without a doctor’s recommendation.
Never give children under 18 aspirin, as it can cause Reye’s syndrome, a serious illness.
Fighting Kids’ Cold & Flu Symptoms: Cold Medicine
A young boy taking his medicine out of a dropper.
For most children, home remedies are the best treatment. Since most colds are caused by viruses, all you can do is treat the symptoms and let the body heal on its own.

Tips for Giving Cold Medicine to Children
If you think your child needs medicine, talk to your child’s doctor first.
Never give children medications meant for adults
Read labels carefully so you don’t give more than one medicine with the same ingredients.
Many cold medicines contain acetaminophen, so be careful not to give your child acetaminophen or another fever reducer at the same time or your child will receive too high of a dose that could be dangerous. Infants and young children under the age of 4 should not be given over-the-counter cough and cold medicines because of the potential risk of dangerous side effects. Always check with your child’s pediatrician before administering medication, even over-the-counter medication, to your child.

Fighting Kids’ Cold & Flu Symptoms: Stuffy Noses
Whether it’s from a cold, flu, allergies, or another form of infection, keeping stuffy noses in check is important to your children’s health.
Whether it’s from a cold, flu, allergies, or another form of infection, keeping stuffy noses in check is important to your children’s health. Not only will they feel better, but stopping a stuffy nose will help stop the spread of infection too.

Tips to Stop Stuffy Noses
Stuffy nose home remedies for kids include the following:

If your child is has a stuffy nose, make sure he or she is well-hydrated—fluids help thin mucus.
You can also use a humidifier or vaporizer in their room to keep air moist and clear their congestion.
Nasal washes with saline may be used for older children.
Raise the head of your child’s bed or crib a few inches to help nasal secretions drain more easily.
If little noses are irritated from blowing them, dab some petroleum jelly on the skin to soothe the outside of the nose.
Children over 5 years old may benefit from pediatric nasal strips that help open the nostril slightly to give relief from nasal congestion.
Medicated nose drops should only be given to children over 6 years old and should not be used for more than two or three days. Using them for too long will make congestion worse.
For babies with congestion, you can use an infant nasal suction bulb to remove the mucus. Put three drops or warm water or saline in each nostril first to soften the mucus. Wait a minute, then suction it out.
Use a cool-mist humidifier to help your child breathe easier. Avoid hot-water humidifiers that can lead to burns. Clean out the device daily to help prevent the growth of bacteria and mold. A humidifier is one of the best stuffy nose home remedies for kids.

Fighting Kids’ Cold & Flu Symptoms: Soothe a Sore Throat
A painful sore throat can make kids miserable in a hurry.
A painful sore throat can make kids miserable in a hurry. Plus, for as children, your options for medicating them are limited.

Ways to Relieve a Child’s Sore Throat
Home remedies for sore throat in kids include the following tips.

Cold drinks including milkshakes and ice chips will help numb a sore throat. Warm items like soup or tea can also soothe a sore throat.

For children 8 or older, gargling with warm salt water can help loosen phlegm and relieve a dry throat. Lozenges can provide some soothing relief. However, they are a choking hazard for young children and should be offered only to older children upon advice of the child’s pediatrician. It is generally recommended to offer lozenges to children who are 4 years of age or older to minimize the risk of choking.

Pain medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen may be given to older children for pain relief.

See your child’s pediatrician or other health care professional right away if your child is not drinking liquids, develops pus in the back of the throat, has difficulty swallowing, or is very fatigued. Seek medical attention if your child’s sore throat lasts more than a few days. Drooling in a young child with a sore throat is concerning and you should also see the pediatrician immediately if your child develops this symptom.

Fighting Kids’ Cold & Flu Symptoms: Calming a Cough
If the cough does not really bother your child, it may not require treatment.
If the cough does not really bother your child, it may not require treatment. Coughing helps clear the chest of mucus. Coughs in children usually only need treatment if the cough causes discomfort or disrupts sleep. If it is necessary to treat your child, here are a few home remedies for coughs for kids.

Fighting a Child’s Cough
A humidifier or vaporizer in your child’s room can help ease coughing symptoms.
Like a humidifier, breathing in steam from a warm shower can ease a cough.
Children 3 months to 1 year old can have warm, clear fluids such as warm water or juice; no honey.
A spoonful of honey before bed has been shown to reduce coughing in children over 1 year old. It helps thin mucus and loosens the cough.
As with sore throats, lozenges can help relieve a cough for older children who are not in danger of choking on them. Ask their pediatrician if you are unsure.

Elevating your child’s head with extra pillows can help relieve a cough that isn’t producing mucus. This is an acceptable dry cough home remedy for kids.

Children under 4 should not be given medications containing dextromethorphan (DXM). Children 4-11 can take DXM, but use caution and follow the directions carefully. Do not use a household spoon to measure the medication—only use the measuring spoon or cup that came with the medication.

Don’t bother with decongestants or antihistamines. These don’t do any good for relieving coughs when a child is sick with a cold or flu. Oral decongestants can actually increase insomnia and raise the heartbeat, so it is better to avoid them.

Another home remedy for kids’ cough at night can be used in kids who are at least 2 years old and older. Put a layer of mentholated rub on your child’s upper chest and throat. Breathing in the vapors will help your child breathe easier and should help with sleep.

Fighting Kids’ Cold & Flu Symptoms: Try Soft Foods
If your child is hungry, let him or her eat. Adequate nutrition is important for a healthy immune system.
The old wives’ tale regarding a home remedy for fever in kids says, “Feed a cold and starve a fever.” That is an old myth, so ignore it. If your child is hungry, let him or her eat. Adequate nutrition is important for a healthy immune system. Here are some tips to make sure mealtime goes well for your sick child.

Feeding a Sick Kid
Soft foods are often easier to swallow when a child has a sore throat.
Bland foods can be easier to eat when a child’s stomach is upset. Foods such as oatmeal, soup, mashed potatoes, applesauce, and bananas can be more palatable with an upset stomach.
Avoid foods that are spicy or that are high in fiber. Both of these can cause an upset stomach ache.
Popsicles are usually a good idea as they can help hydrate as well as soothe. Crackers or even mac and cheese are also options.
High-fat foods should be avoided, as these can be difficult to digest.
If your child does not want to eat, offer lots of fluids and small, healthy meals.
Fighting Kids’ Cold & Flu Symptoms: Upset Stomach
Home remedies for flu for kids involve making sure your child is adequately hydrated.
Children sick with the flu may not feel like eating much as they may also experience

upset stomach,
nausea,
vomiting, or
diarrhea.
They can also become dehydrated. Home remedies for flu for kids involve making sure your child is adequately hydrated. It’s important to give your child plenty of fluids. Re-hydration solutions for children are often the best option. You can give your child water or ice chips to suck on. Some drinks should be avoided, however, due to their high sugar content, which can make diarrhea worse. Try to avoid:

juice,
sports drinks,
soda, and
other beverages with high sugar content.
If a child is not vomiting, they can eat small portions, and make sure they drink plenty of fluids.

Fighting Kids’ Cold & Flu Symptoms: Trust Your Instincts
Sometimes you just have a bad feeling something isn’t right when your child is sick at home.
Sometimes you just have a bad feeling something isn’t right when your child is sick at home. Here are some times when it’s best to contact your child’s pediatrician or go to a pediatric emergency department if the symptoms are unusual or severe.

When to Call a Doctor
Your child’s temperature is higher than 101° F.
Your child’s temperature is higher than 101° F.
Their symptoms last more than 10 days.
Symptoms are severe or unusual.
Your child does not produce tears when crying.
Your child is younger than 3 months old and has a fever.
Your child has a cough that lasts more than one week.
Your child’s nails or lips turn blue.
Your child has nasal mucus that lasts for longer than 10 to 14 days.
Your child is very sleepy or cranky.
In addition, watch out for the following signs, which could spell more trouble than the usual cold or flu:

breathing problems,
difficulty swallowing,
coughing up a lot of mucus,
extreme fatigue or irritability,
earache or drainage from the ear,
your child seems to be getting worse and not better, or
any other symptoms that concern you.
Cold Home Remedies for Kids: Zinc
Results of several studies suggest zinc sulfate is an effective cold home remedy for kids that can reduce the duration of colds when taken within the first 24 hours of developing symptoms.
Results of several studies suggest zinc sulfate is an effective cold home remedy for kids that can reduce the duration of colds when taken within the first 24 hours of developing symptoms. Zinc can be associated with side effects like nausea and altered taste. However, these potential side effects are more common with zinc lozenges than with zinc tablets or syrup. Always consult your child’s pediatrician before giving your child any over-the-counter supplement or medication.

Cold Home Remedies for Kids: Pelargonium sidoides
Studies show the extract shortens the duration of respiratory infections like the common cold.
Pelargonium sidoides extract is derived from a flower (geranium) and has long been used in traditional South African medicine. Studies show the extract shortens the duration of respiratory infections like the common cold. It may also lessen the severity of colds. Results of one study suggest P. sidoides helped reduce cough and sputum production in kids who were suffering from the common cold. Check with your child’s pediatric doctor before using.

Prevention of Cold and Flu
The best remedy for cold and flu in kids is prevention.
The best remedy for cold and flu in kids is prevention. Teach kids to wash their hands frequently. Keep your child home when sick to avoid spreading germs to others. Teach your kid to cough and sneeze into their sleeve or a tissue to minimize the potential for virus particle to become airborne. Interventions like probiotics, vitamin C, zinc sulfate, nasal irrigation with saline solution, and a supplement called Chizukit, may all help reduce kids’ risk of catching a cold or a flu. Chizukit is a product that contains a mix of Echinacea, propolis, and vitamin C. Ask your child’s pediatrician before using supplements or vitamins for the prevention of cold and flu.

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Cold, Fever and Flu Treatment in Children: Medications and Home Remedies
Reviewed By: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Reviewed on 2/7/2017
How Can I Treat My Child’s Cold Symptoms?
Over-the-counter (OTC) medications and home remedies can be used to ease a fever, sore throat, runny nose, or other common cold symptoms.
Maybe it starts with the sniffles. Maybe it starts with a cough and mild aches and pains. Maybe it’s a long day with an upset stomach. Whatever the cause, curing your child’s cold symptoms is going to take some know-how. This is a great place to start.

Using this visual guide, discover how to relieve your sick children at home and restore them to good health. Discover which medical treatments are effective remedies for the common cold. Also, learn how to safely give over-the-counter (OTC) medication if needed to ease a fever, sore throat, runny nose, or other common cold symptom.

Is It a Low-Grade Fever, or More Serious?
It is generally safe for low fevers to treat with ibuprofen or acetaminophen as common cold remedies. For more serious fevers, call your doctor.
Does your child’s forehead feel hot? Does he or she wake up in a cold sweat? Fevers can be scary, but how hot does one need to be before a parent should find a way to cool it?

According to pediatricians, if your child is warmer than 100.4 degrees, he or she may be at an increased health risk. Call the doctor if your child is this warm and is fewer than 6 months old, shows other symptoms, has been feverish for three days or longer, or has yet to be vaccinated.

If these are not the case, it is generally safe to use children’s ibuprofen or acetaminophen as common cold remedies, which have the additional benefit of pain relief. Aspirin should never be given to anyone under age 19. Asprin use in children elevates the risk of Reye’s syndrome, a serious but rare illness that can harm the brain and liver.

How Else Can I Bring My Child’s Temperature Down?
Besides over-the-counter medication (OTC), a lukewarm sponge bath and light clothing can help bring your child’s temperature down.
Beyond calling the doctor and offering over-the-counter medication to your child, there are a few other ways to help reduce their high temperature.

Try a sponge bath. Use water that is lukewarm.
Avoid rubbing alcohol, cold water, and ice.
Instead of piling on blankets, make sure your child is resting at a comfortable temperature and is dressed lightly.
Watch out for dehydration symptoms.
If your infant’s diaper is dry, has a dry tongue or mouth, or is feeding poorly, call a health-care professional immediately or go to the nearest emergency room.
For older children showing signs of dehydration such as not urinating frequently enough, not drinking well, or acting abnormally, call the pediatrician.
When to Call the Pediatrician
High fever, fever lasting three days or longer, signs of dehydration, green or yellow mucous after 10 days or discharge from eyes are reasons to call the pediatrician.
When your child has a high fever or is dehydrated, you need to call the doctor right away. But outside of overheating and dehydration, when else should you seek medical care? Here are some guidelines:

Call if you suspect your baby under 12 months old might have the flu;
Call if your baby under 12 months old is not urinating or drinking frequently enough;
Call if your child’s nasal mucus is either green or yellow, or if you notice any discharge after a period of 10 days, or if discharge appears to come from his or her eyes;
Call if the child is feverish for three days or longer.
Some situations are even more serious, and require an immediate trip to the emergency room. Go to the emergency room if your child has difficulty breathing, seems very sick, will not to eat or drink, shows signs of a rash, or anytime you are concerned.

Does Chicken Soup Really Help Treat a Common Cold?
Studies show eating nutritious brew of chicken soup can reducing inflammation, improve health and promote hydration.
Believe it or not, the answer is yes, for a few reasons. For one, there have been studies that show a connection between eating chicken soup and reducing inflammation.

Even without the possible inflammation-reducing powers of chicken soup, it’s a nutritious brew that can improve health and help promote hydration. But don’t stop at just chicken soup. Give your sick child lots of other fluids, like milk, water, or an electrolyte solution like Pedialyte or Gatorade.

Other Home Remedies
Steam is a great way to help a stuffy nose, and that can help remedy the pain of congestion. Have your child inhale steam from a hot shower or a cool mist vaporizer.

Menthol chest rubs can also be helpful. They help loosen mucus to be coughed out. A word of warning: Do not use medicated vapor on anyone under age 2.

Finally, after nose-blowing has left your child’s face a little raw, try petroleum jelly under the nose to soothe irritated skin.

How Do I Relieve a Sore Throat and Cough?
Having caffeine-free tea or water with honey and lemon, lozenges, and a salt water gargle can help relieve a sore throat and cough.
Usually colds are the culprits when it comes to sore throats, and they tend to last about four or five days. How to relieve a sore throat depends on age.

Children over 2 can find relief from a warm, caffeinate-free tea or water with about 1/2 tsp. of honey with lemon.
Children over 1 can receive 1 tsp. of buckwheat honey for cough relief.
Children 6 and older can find relief from over-the-counter lozenges with anesthetic that helps ease pain. Hard candy is another suitable option—sugar-free being best for their health. A warm salt water gargle may also be helpful.
Strep throat tends to arise quickly. Sometimes strep comes with no other cold symptoms. If you think your child has strep, call your doctor for a strep test and antibiotics if necessary.

At What Age Can My Child Take Cough or Cold Medicine?
Children under age 4 should not be given cough medicine or over-the-counter (OTC) cold medication.
If your child is under age 4, don’t give him or her cough medicine or over-the-counter cold medication. These OTC medications will do little to help symptoms in toddlers, according to several studies. Not only are they ineffective, but these medications may cause serious and potentially life-threatening side effects in young children. Instead, give your child extra fluids to prevent dehydration. Employ a nasal aspirator and a humidifier to further restore health.

One Medicine or Two?
Use medications, even multi-symptom medicines as long as they match your child’s symptoms.
Medications that relieve multiple symptoms may be tempting, but use them cautiously. Stick with medications that match your child’s symptoms. That means it’s OK to use multi-symptom over-the-counter treatment – just as long as those symptoms match the ones your child is suffering from.

To make sure you’re not over-medicating your child, read the directions on the back of all medication and follow them carefully. If your OTC medicine came with a measuring device, use it. Don’t choose products that treat symptoms your child isn’t suffering from. A multi-symptom cold medicine would be a poor choice, for example, for a child who is only experiencing a sore throat.

Using Two Medicines? Don’t Double Up On a Drug
Do not give your child two over-the-counter (OTC) medications with the same active ingredients as this could lead to an overdose.
When administering medication to children, read the label carefully. Don’t give your child two over-the-counter medications with the same active ingredients, which could lead to an overdose.

Oftentimes children’s cold medications come with acetaminophen — the same as Tylenol. So if you don’t read carefully, it can be shockingly simple to over medicate your child. Medicine comes with a “drug facts” box, which is a great place to start. Compare ingredients found there to reduce the risk of an overdose.

When Should I Choose a Decongestant, an Expectorant, or a Suppressant?
Decongestants shrink nasal passages and relieve pain while expectorants thin mucus making it easier to cough up. Suppressants do little to remove mucus.
Decongestants and expectorants work in different ways, and both remedies can lead your child to better health when used in the right way.

Stuffy nasal passages shrink when decongestants are used. This helps relieve pain. These forms of medication are available as nasal sprays or drops or as oral treatments. Nasal drops or sprays should be discontinued after being used for two or three days straight.

On the other hand, expectorants help to thin mucus, making it easier to cough up. For an expectorant to work properly, your child needs to drink plenty of water.

Cough suppressants don’t do much in the way of removing mucus. That’s why it is often not to suppress a cough, even the cough is keeping a child awake at night.

Don’t give any cold medication to anyone under 4 without speaking to your child’s doctor.

Finding the Right Dose
Administer over-the-counter (OTC) medications only according to the directions, base the dosage on your child’s weight and age, read labels and warnings for side-effects, and always use the included measuring device.
Over-the-counter treatments can be a great remedy for the common cold, but exercise caution when using them. Administer OTC medication only according to the directions. Make sure you base the dosage on your child’s weight and age. And don’t forget to read the “Warnings” sections for potential side effects and drug interactions.

Also be mindful of these common abbreviations often found on labels:

Tbsp (tablespoon) and Tsp (teaspoon),
oz. (ounces),
ml. (milliliter), and
mg. (milligram).
Those are all very different measurements.

Also, use the measuring device that is packaged with the medication for most accurate dosing.

It’s Time for a Dose: Should I Wake My Sick Child Up?
Let your child sleep as much as they need to even if it means missing a dose of medicine.
One of the best common cold remedies is rest, so let your children sleep as much as they need to. If you need to skip a dose of over-the-counter medicine so that your child may sleep longer, go ahead and skip the medicine. Remember: you’ll have a chance to administer that medicine again when your child wakes up, or possibly the next morning. Take your child to a doctor if he or she has been taking an OTC medicine for four days or longer.

Does It Really Matter Whether I Use a Kitchen Spoon For Medicine?
It is safer to use the cup or spoon that comes with over-the-counter medication.
It can make a difference. Common kitchen spoons vary in size. It is safer to use the cup or spoon that comes with over-the-counter medication.

Wondering what to do if no measuring device came with the medication? The label will recommend something like 2 teaspoons be administered. In that case, use an actual dosing cup or measuring spoon that comes with teaspoon marks. You can then rest easy knowing you’ve given him or her the right amount.

Should I Give Another Dose if My Child Vomits?
If your child spits up or vomits their medicine, do not try and give another full dose as some of it may have been absorbed and you risk overdose.
So the first dose didn’t agree with your child, who went and spit it out or vomited after taking medicine. A concerned parent may want to follow up with another full dose, but don’t do it. Some of that medication may have been absorbed, and if you give another full dose you risk overdosing him or her.

It’s better to call the pediatrician in times like this. If your child tends to spit up medication because he or she doesn’t like it, ask your pharmacist if it’s alright to mix the remedy with a bit of food or drink.

I’m Out of Children’s Medicine. Can I Give Half An Adult Dose?
It is never a good idea to give your child OTC treatments designed for adults.
It is never a good idea to give your child OTC treatments designed for adults. You can do no better than guess at how much your child might need, and some remedies are specifically formulated for adults and should not be administered to children. For that reason, avoid any products not specifically labeled for use in infants, babies, or children with the words “for pediatric use.”

Don’t Call OTC Medicine “Candy.”
Never call any medication
You may be tempted to call medicine “candy” in order to encourage your children to take it. But it’s not a good idea. Little kids love to imitate the adults in their lives. To make sure you’re setting the best possible example, consider these tips:

Try to avoid taking medicine in front of your children, whether it’s for a prescription or over-the-counter.
Never call any medication “candy.”
Avoid rewarding children with medication that tastes sweet — children’s vitamins included. Instead, offer a favorite drink after medicine has been administered to help wash away the taste.
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How to Prevent the Common Cold
Reviewed By: Physicians’ Review Network (PRN)
Reviewed on 7/27/2016
The common cold
The common cold is arguably the most common illness in humans.
The common cold usually involves symptoms including runny nose, cough, sore throat, and sneezing. Each year, the common cold affects millions of Americans, causing them to miss school and work. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates adults have about 2-3 colds per year, and children experience 8-12 colds annually.

What causes the common cold, and how is it spread?
A boy spreads a virus by sneezing/spraying germ droplets.
The common cold refers to a group of symptoms caused by viruses. Rhinoviruses cause the most cases of the common cold, and more than 200 different viruses have been identified that cause cold symptoms. Colds are most often transmitted from one person to another via the hands – for example, by shaking hands with a person who has a cold. Droplets containing the virus may be coughed or sneezed by an infected person into the air and inhaled by another. The virus may contaminate a surface such as a doorknob or countertop.

You can reduce your risk of getting a cold by following a few simple steps.

  1. Wash your hands often.
    A person washes their hands in a bathroom sink.
    Washing your hands for at least 20 seconds can help protect you from getting sick. Washing your hands frequently helps prevent the spread of infection. Use plain soap and water, making sure to pay attention to spaces between fingers, and under the fingernails. Rinse and dry with a clean towel. Teach your children to wash their hands properly. If soap and water is unavailable, alcohol-based hand sanitizers are an alternative.

Make sure to wash hands after sneezing or coughing, and before handling food.

  1. Avoid touching your face.
    A girl rubs her eye.
    Viruses can enter your body through the areas around your nose, mouth, and eyes. It is important to avoid touching your face if you are exposed to a person with a cold, especially if you have not washed your hands.
  2. Don’t smoke
    A woman smokes a cigarette.
    Smoking tobacco products irritates and damages the throat and lungs, and can worsen cold symptoms – which already include a sore throat and cough. Even secondhand smoke can cause irritation. A recent study also found the anti-viral response in smokers may become suppressed, making them less able to fight off infection.
  3. Use disposable items if a family member is infected.
    A boy drinks from a disposable plastic cup.
    Use your own disposable plates, cups, and utensils and discard them after use if you have a cold. This is especially helpful if there are children in the household, who may attempt to take food off others’ plates, or drink from others’ cups.
  4. Keep household surfaces clean.
    A person cleans and wipes a faucet.
    Clean all household surfaces frequently to keep them germ-free. Viruses can live on surfaces for several hours after being touched by an infected person. Pay attention to the areas you touch most often and use soap and water, bleach, or disinfectant cleaners to wipe off doorknobs, keyboards, phones, remote controls, desks, toys, countertops, faucet handles, and drawer pulls.
  5. Wash toys
    A room full of toys.
    Children are four times more likely to get a cold than adults, and often the common cold virus is spread by contact with toys. When you clean all household surfaces, remember to clean your child’s toys too.
  6. Use paper towels
    A paper towel roll.
    Cloth towels can harbor viruses for hours after being touched, just as many surfaces do. To avoid contamination, use paper towels to clean up in the kitchen and to dry your hands after washing.
  7. Throw tissues away after use
    A bowl of chicken noodle soup and a box of tissues.
    You’ll probably use a lot of tissues if you have a cold, but be sure you throw them away after each use. Even a small sneeze into one tissue will harbor the virus for hours and if placed on a table or countertop, it will contaminate the surface.
  8. Maintain a healthy lifestyle
    A woman sleeping, a healthy refrigerator, and a woman exercising on a treadmill.
    It’s important to be healthy at all times, so that if you do get a cold your body’s immune system is strong and can fight the infection. Eat a balanced diet with plenty of fruits and vegetables, exercise regularly, and get enough sleep.
  9. Control stress
    A woman relaxes with her eyes closed.
    When we experience stress we release a hormone called cortisol, which has anti-inflammatory properties. Chronic stress causes an over-production of this hormone, which in turn causes the immune system to become resistant to it. Studies have shown that when a chronically stressed person is exposed to the common cold virus, which causes inflammation, their bodies are less able to fight it because their natural anti-inflammatory response does not work as well as it should.

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Lung and Respiratory Health: Reasons You’re Short of Breath
Reviewed By: Louise Chang, MD
Reviewed on 10/14/2018
Asthma
Asthma narrows airways.
Your airways suddenly narrow and swell. You may struggle for air, cough up mucus, or hear whistling when you breathe.

It’s not clear why this happens to some people, but lots of things could trigger an attack, including pollen, dust, smoke, exercise, freezing air, a cold, and stress.

Your doctor can help you figure out what causes yours. They might prescribe medication for you to inhale during an attack to help you breathe more easily.

Allergies
Allergies irritate airways and may trigger asthma.
Pollen, dust, pet dander, and other things you breathe in can cause allergies.

Sometimes the allergic reaction causes asthma. But it’s not always something in the air. It could start with something you touch, or some food you eat.

Talk with your doctor about how best to manage your asthma and allergies. Make sure to check in when your symptoms change, too.

Anxiety
Anxiety may affect your lungs and cause symptoms.
You may breathe harder when you’re scared or worried. It’s usually not a big deal, but it can be serious if you already have lung problems like COPD. Sudden stress, like a car accident, could trigger an attack if you have asthma.

Even if you’re otherwise healthy, anxiety might cause you to breathe fast enough to get lightheaded and pass out.

Carbon Monoxide
Breathing carbon monoxide can make you short of breath.
It’s a colorless, odorless gas that can come from furnaces, fireplaces, water heaters, dryers, and car fumes. If it isn’t sent out the right way, it can build up in the air, and you could breathe too much of it. That makes it hard for your red blood cells to send oxygen through your body.

You may be short of breath, dizzy, confused, weak, and nauseated. Your vision could blur, and you could pass out. It could be life-threatening.

A Cold
The cold virus can affect the airways.
It happens thanks to a virus that causes a runny nose, sneezing, and sometimes fever. It may irritate your lungs and airway, and bring a cough that can make it hard to breathe.

There’s no cure, but it usually gets better on its own in a week or so. See your doctor if you have a fever higher than 102 F, if you’re wheezing, or if it’s hard to catch your breath.

Pulmonary Embolism
A pulmonary embolism may lead to life-threatening lung problems.
A blockage, or clot, often in your leg, breaks loose, and a piece goes to your lung and blocks blood flow. That can make it hard or painful to breathe. You could feel faint, and your heart might race. Some people cough up blood. You may have swelling, warmth, and soreness where the clot started.

If any of this happens to you, get to the hospital, as it can be life-threatening. Your doctor may use blood thinners, other drugs, or surgery.

Sleep Apnea
Sleep apnea causes pauses in breathing.
It’s a condition when breathing stops repeatedly during sleep, so a person may not realize anything is happening. But you might be tired, groggy, and moody the next day. It could lead to high blood pressure and make you more likely to have heart disease and a stroke.

Extra weight is a risk. It may help to lose weight, but not all people with sleep apnea are overweight.

Pneumonia
Pneumonia causes fluid build-up in the lungs.
A virus, bacteria, or fungus infects the air sacs inside your lungs. Then those sacs fill with fluid. This makes it harder to breathe. You also could have chills and fever, and you might cough up a thick, colored mucus.

Check in regularly with your doctor. They might prescribe antibiotics if your pneumonia is caused by bacteria. Other types are harder to treat, but rest, fluids, and over-the-counter meds can make you feel better.

COPD
Smoking is the leading cause of COPD.
Some people call it “chronic bronchitis” or emphysema. Smoking causes it most often. It stretches out the air sacs in your lungs, making it hard for the lungs to move air. This makes it tougher to breathe. You might feel tightness in your chest and have a cough, sometimes with wheezing, that doesn’t go away.

Your doctor can help you manage this serious condition. If you smoke, the most important step you can take is to quit smoking.

Heart Failure
Heart failure causes shortness of breath.
It doesn’t mean your heart has “failed,” just that it’s not as strong at pumping blood as it should be. That makes it harder to get oxygen where it needs to go. Blood backs up in your lungs. That can make you short of breath.

Simple things — when you climb stairs, walk a long way, or carry groceries — might tire you out.

Your doctor can help you manage your symptoms.

Anemia
Anemia can make you tired.
When your body doesn’t have enough healthy red blood cells, you can’t get enough oxygen to your tissues. That can make you weak and tired, and sometimes short of breath. It can also make you dizzy and pale, with cold hands and feet, and a fast heartbeat.

Lots of things cause it, so treatment depends on what’s causing yours. Talk to your doctor if you’re tired and can’t figure out why.

A Collapsed Lung
A collapsed lung creates breathing problems.
Doctors sometimes call it pneumothorax. It happens when an injury or disease causes air to leak from your lungs to the space between your lungs and the wall of your chest. The air pushes on the lung, making it fold in on itself.

You could have chest pain and be short of breath. Your doctor may put a needle or small tube into the area to remove the air, or you may need surgery. But if it’s minor, it might get better on its own.

Crying or Being Scared
It may be hard for kids to breath when they cry or get scared.
Kids between 6 months and 6 years of age can sometimes have moments when they stop breathing while crying or when they become startled. This sometimes triggers a “cyanotic spell,” an uncontrolled response that makes them faint.

The child may turn blue and pass out for about a minute. They could seem groggy afterward. Though it can be scary at first, it’s nothing to worry about, and it might happen again and again.

Myasthenia Gravis
Neuromuscular disease like myasthenia gravis can affect breathing.
It’s a “neuromuscular” disease that makes it harder for muscles and nerves to talk to each other. You might notice weakness when you move your arms and legs. It can also affect automatic movements like breathing. The disease could change the way you chew, swallow, blink, and smile. It’s usually worse if you exert yourself and better after you rest.

Your doctor can help you manage your symptoms. In some cases, people go into remission.

A Broken Heart
Broken heart syndrome makes it hard to breathe.
It’s a real thing. There’s even a name for it: broken heart syndrome. Sudden, intense emotion — a lost loved one or ended romance, for example — affects the heart, causing sharp chest pain and making it hard to breathe. The heart doesn’t pump as well for a while.

Unlike a heart attack, it doesn’t happen because your arteries are blocked. Most people get better within a few days or weeks.

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Lung and Respiratory Health: Surprising Causes of Lung Damage
Reviewed By: Laura J. Martin, MD
Reviewed on 10/21/2018
Mold
Mold can take a toll on your lungs and immune system.
It’s a type of fungus that puts tiny particles called spores into the air. They can sometimes cause serious lung infections if you have mold allergies, a lung condition such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a weak immune system — your body’s defense against germs. If you’re sensitive to mold, fix any leaks in your home and avoid compost piles and lawns with clumps of cut grass.

Radon
Radon particles that you inhale or swallow can damage lungs.
You can’t smell, touch, or see this gas, but it’s the No. 2 cause of lung cancer in the U.S. behind smoking. It’s made when natural uranium in rock, soil, and water breaks down. It gets into buildings through cracks in floors and walls, and around plumbing and electrical wire. The radioactive particles in radon damage your lungs when you breathe them in or swallow them. A simple test kit can see if you have high levels in your home.

Carpet
Carpet harbors dust mites, mold, gases, and toxic gases that may cause lung damage.
It can trap mold, cockroach droppings, dust mites, and toxic gases — and all can hurt your lungs. They enter the air when you vacuum the carpet or walk on it. The chemicals used to make and install carpet could also cause problems. Consider putting in wood floors or some other kind of hard surface. Or use throw rugs you can clean outside the home. Vacuum your carpet three times a week, and steam clean it every year.

Pesticides
Pesticides may trigger asthma and COPD.
These chemicals keep bugs away from farm crops and your lawn. If you eat, touch, or breathe them, it might cause problems with your nerves, hormones, eyes, skin, and lungs, too. Farmworkers and others who use them are more likely to get lung problems like asthma and COPD. Masks, goggles, and special clothes can help protect anyone who works around pesticides.

Fireworks
Smoke from fireworks displays contain bits of metal that are harmful to lungs.
Their color is created by different bits of metal that explode a fine powder into the air. This can trigger or worsen asthma and other lung and heart issues if you breathe it. Play it safe during a fireworks show by staying far from any drifting smoke. You could also use a breathing mask that filters particles.

Airbags
Sodium azide used to trigger air bag deployment may trigger asthma and breathing problems.
A white, odorless chemical called sodium azide helps push these bags forward to protect you in a car crash. This creates a fine powder that may trigger asthma and other breathing problems. High levels might cause your lungs to fill with fluid. It could also irritate and inflame the walls of your lungs. Talk to your doctor right away if you notice lung problems after an airbag opens.

Flour
Inhaling flour during baking may cause baker’s asthma.
People who work as bakers cough, wheeze, and struggle for breath more than others. It may be from breathing all that flour. It’s common enough to have its own name: baker’s asthma. Over time it could worsen lung conditions like asthma and damage your lungs. And it seems to affect not only the baker, but their family as well, probably because of the dust carried home on clothes, skin, and hair.

Gas Appliances
Gas-burning appliances may be a source of breathing problems.
Cooktops, ovens, and space heaters can be hidden causes of lung problems. As gas burns, it makes a chemical called nitrous oxide that can inflame your lungs, make you cough and wheeze, and trigger asthma. You also make it when you burn wood, oil, coal, or kerosene. Make sure to install, clean, and maintain appliances properly, and pay extra attention to how well they send waste gases out of the house.

Cockroaches
Cockroach dropping can trigger asthma and allergies.
Their poop and bits of their bodies turn to dust, which settles on your floors, bedding, and furniture. You breathe it in when it gets stirred up by activities like vacuuming. This can cause allergies and breathing problems. Preschool kids who come into contact with the stuff can develop asthma. It helps to keep your house as clean and dry as possible, especially fabrics and carpet.

Birds
Airborne particles from bird droppings may irritate lungs.
When some people breathe in airborne particles from bird feathers and poop, they get inflamed lungs and may end up with scar tissue there. It’s sometimes called pigeon breeder’s disease or bird fancier’s lung. You may hear your doctor refer to it as hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Talk to a doctor if you notice symptoms after being around birds.

Farming
Mold on grain, hay, and straw may cause farmer’s lung or pneumonitis.
Farmer’s lung is another type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Your immune system reacts to a mold that grows on grain, hay, or straw and inflames your lungs. It’s worse on dairy farms, among cattle workers, and in places where it’s wet at harvest time. The best thing to do is get away from the mold that causes it. Eventually, you might become less sensitive. Some drugs can cut down your allergic reaction.

Humidifier
Fungus that may grow in humidifiers, air conditioners, or heating systems may affect your lungs.
It looks harmless enough. All it does is put moisture into the air to help you breathe better. But it could hurt your breathing, too. That’s because a fungus can grow in your humidifier and get blown into the air. The same problem might also happen in air conditioners and heating systems. Your lungs develop an allergy to the fungus and get inflamed. To avoid trouble, clean and service your heating and cooling system.

Your Hot Tub
Bacteria that grow in hot tubs, showers, and pools may trigger breathing problems.
Bacteria that develop in indoor hot tubs can enter your lungs when you breathe in the vapor created by the hot water. Your lungs may get inflamed and you could get a fever, cough, and breathing trouble. Be sure to clean and maintain hot tubs, showers, and pools, and see your doctor about any breathing problems.

Candles
Petroleum based candles release substances into the air that may be irritating to lungs.
The most common type, made from petroleum-based paraffin, releases chemicals into the air that may raise your risk of allergic reactions, breathing problems like asthma, and even cancer. Occasional use is probably OK, but lighting up every day may not be a good idea over the long term. For safer options, try candles made from beeswax or soy, and make sure there is good airflow whenever you burn anything.

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Coronavirus COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2): The Latest News, Updates and Information

Reviewed By: MedicineNet News
Reviewed on 4/1/2020
U.S. Coronavirus Death Toll Could Reach 240,000, Task Force Warns
U.S. Coronavirus Death Toll Could Reach 240,000, Task Force Warns
WEDNESDAY, April 1, 2020 (HealthDay News) — The White House coronavirus task force delivered a tough statistic to Americans late Tuesday, warning that the U.S. death toll from COVID-19 could climb to 240,000, even with social distancing policies in place.

During a media briefing Tuesday evening, President Donald Trump warned citizens to brace for.

As Unemployment and COVID-19 Cases Rise, Who Will Pay for Care?
As Unemployment and COVID-19 Cases Rise, Who Will Pay for Care?
WEDNESDAY, April 1, 2020 (HealthDay News) — The coronavirus pandemic is spreading across the United States at the same time that millions have been laid off from their jobs.

That raises the obvious question — how will those newly unemployed folks pay for medical care if they become infected with the coronavirus? Read more

Certain Health Conditions Up Risks for Severe COVID-19
Certain Health Conditions Up Risks for Severe COVID-19
WEDNESDAY, April 1, 2020 (HealthDay News) — New research suggests that having an underlying health condition might be one of the most significant risk factors for developing a severe case of COVID-19.

Scientists at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention took a look at a group of U.S. adult COVID-19 patients and found roughly.

What 1918 Spanish Flu Death Toll Tells Us About COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic
Can the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic prepare us for the 2020 coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic?
Spanish flu was the most devastating pandemic ever recorded, leaving major figures like medical philanthropist Bill Gates to draw comparisons to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. How did the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic cause such a high death toll? And how can the Spanish flu prepare us for coronavirus?

It started as a mild flu season, not different from any other. When its first wave hit in the spring of 1918, the Spanish flu seemed like just another flu. But then… Read more

Can Vitamin C Prevent and Treat Coronavirus?
Vitamin C has been added to the list of potential therapies for coronavirus Covid-19.
In a mad dash to discover effective treatment for the novel coronavirus, doctors and scientists are testing existing antivirals, antimalarials, monoclonal antibodies, and other medications against COVID-19. Now Chinese teams are adding vitamin C to the list of potential therapies.

The study description notes that vitamin C is an antioxidant that may help prevent cytokine-induced damage to the lungs. Cytokines are small proteins released by cells, which trigger.

How Long Does Coronavirus Stay on Surfaces and in the Air?
The novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, remains viable in aerosols for hours and on surfaces for days.
The novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, remains viable in aerosols for hours and on surfaces for days, according to a new study.

The data indicate that the stability of the new virus is similar to that of SARS-CoV-1, which caused the SARS epidemic. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, has quickly outstripped the pace of the 2003 SARS epidemic. “Super spread” of the earlier disease arose from infection during medical procedures, in which a single infected individual seeded many secondary cases. In contrast, the novel coronavirus appears to be spread more through.

Can Zinc Lozenges Ward Off Coronavirus? What Doctors Say
Can zinc lozenges actually shorten the length of a viral infection including coronavirus COVID-19?
They may soothe a sore throat, but can zinc lozenges actually shorten the length of a viral infection? The question is getting a fresh look after coronavirus researcher James Robb’s email suggesting the mineral supplement to friends and family leaked online.

Robb was one of the first pathologists to study coronavirus in the 1970s. The email gives several tips for stopping the spread of novel coronavirus COVID-19. They include specific tips about.

U.S. Coronavirus Cases Top 163,000; Death Count Set to Surpass China’s Total
U.S. Coronavirus Cases Top 163,000; Death Count Set to Surpass China’s Total
As U.S. coronavirus cases surged past 163,000 on Tuesday, Americans were told they may soon get a look at the statistical disease models that public officials have been using to urge more than 250 million people to stay at home.

Doctors, Nurses Face Harassment, Firing for Self-Care Amid COVID-19 Coronavirus
Doctors, Nurses Face Harassment, Firing for Self-Care Amid COVID-19 Coronavirus
As upper management patrolled the halls at one hospital in California, telling staff they could be fired on the spot for wearing N95 masks brought from home, one nurse asked to see the policy. The administrator told her that, if she was going to wear one, she needed a note from her doctor.

As hospitals watch their supply of masks and other personal protective equipment (PPE) dwindle, constraints have become so restrictive that physicians and nurses on the frontlines of the COVID-19 pandemic believe their health is being sacrificed… Read more

N95 Respirator Masks, Surgical Masks, and DIY Masks
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, hospitals and clinics are running out of masks.
In the midst of the rapidly spreading COVID-19 pandemic, hospitals and clinics are running out of masks. Healthcare workers are going online to beg for more, the hashtags #GetMePPE and #WeNeedPPE are trending on Twitter, and some hospitals have even put out public calls for mask donations. They know that the moment the masks run out, they’re at increased risk for disease. So instead of waiting for mask shipments that may be weeks off, some people are making their own.

5-Minute Rapid-Result Coronavirus Test
The FDA has authorized a coronavirus test that the manufacturer says can tell if someone is infected with the virus within 5 minutes.

In a news release, Abbott Diagnostics Scarborough in Illinois said the test can tell if a person has the coronavirus in as little as 5 minutes and tell if someone.

More Evidence COVID-19 Survivors’ Blood Could Help Very Ill Patients
More Evidence COVID-19 Survivors’ Blood Could Help Very Ill Patients
A small study out of China bolsters the notion that transfusing the antibody-enriched blood of people who’ve survived COVID-19 could help patients still fighting for their lives against the disease.

If the findings are replicated in larger trials.

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What Drugs Fight COVID-19? Drug Trials, Treatments, Vaccines
Reviewed By: Charles Patrick Davis, MD, Ph
Reviewed on 3/26/2020
The Search for COVID-19 Treatment
There are no medicines available to treat COVID-19—yet.
There are no medicines available to treat COVID-19—yet. That hasn’t stopped hundreds of studies from being launched in the first months of the COVID-19 global pandemic. Read on to learn what approaches scientists think might work to relieve COVID-19 symptoms, what drugs may cure serious cases, and other drugs that might prevent infection. See what these investigational drugs may have to offer in the fight against COVID-19.

Plaquenil & Aralen (Antimalarial Drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine)
For centuries people have turned to hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine to fight malaria.
For centuries people have turned to hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine to fight malaria. Now these drugs, often sold under the brand names Plaquenil and Aralen, are being sent to clinical trial for fighting COVID-19. These drugs had been used during the SARS crisis and showed promise, but were never widely used. They may be useful for both preventing infection and treating people with infections. Chloroquine has been shown to inhibit the growth of the novel coronavirus in lab settings, and has been used in China to treat critically ill patients.

However, people should not take this medication without a doctor’s supervision. In Nigeria, three people were reported to have overdosed on chloroquine after the U.S. president made positive comments about it in relation to COVID-19. Publicity of these drugs long before the president’s comments had already led to a nationwide shortage of these drugs in the U.S. Pharmacists began running out of their supply of a drug that can be lifesaving in the event of lupus flares. Many people with rheumatoid arthritis also rely on hydroxychloroquine for their flares.

Kaletra (HIV drugs lopinavir and ritonavir)
The HIV drug Kaletra (generic names lopinavir and ritonavir) was studied early to great fanfare as a possible COVID-19 treatment.
The HIV drug Kaletra (generic names lopinavir and ritonavir) was studied early to great fanfare as a possible COVID-19 treatment. In theory, this medication could be helpful by reducing the viral load of those infected. It had been studied in the treatment of both SARS and MERS coronaviruses, but the studies were flawed. Unfortunately, an important study of 199 COVID-19 patients in China treated with this drug showed the pharmaceutical provided no additional benefit compared to standard care.

Avigan (Anti-Flu Drug favipiravir)
The anti-flu drug Avigan (generic name favipiravir) won early approval in China for treating symptoms of COVID-19.
The anti-flu drug Avigan (generic name favipiravir) won early approval in China for treating symptoms of COVID-19. It is also approved in Japan for investigational use into the novel coronavirus. Favipiravir was reported to help infected patients recover more quickly and with milder chest symptoms, according to Chinese officials. Still, parent company Fujifilm Pharmaceuticals, Japan has not yet confirmed the drug’s efficacy in treating COVID-19.

Ebola Drug – remdesivir
One of the most promising antiviral drugs for Ebola got quick NIH approval for testing on COVID-19 patients.
“There is only one drug right now that we think may have real efficacy and that’s remdesivir,” WHO Assistant Director-General Bruce Aylward said at a March press briefing.

One of the most promising antiviral drugs for Ebola got quick NIH approval for testing on COVID-19 patients. Remdesivir trials for coronavirus are taking place in both the United States and China, and include 13 of the Americans who first became ill onboard the Diamond Princess cruise ship. Tests are ongoing.

Interferon Beta (Lung Disease Drug)
Another drug that showed promise fighting SARS, Interferon Beta is being tested for COVID-19.
Another drug that showed promise fighting SARS, Interferon Beta is being tested for COVID-19. This antiviral drug is a common choice for doctors when the cause of an infection is unknown. It may inhibit replication of respiratory coronaviruses, and has shown promise fighting MERS in mice. Those mice studies showed that an injection of Interferon Beta within a day of MERS infection protected mice from death. This drug has also shown antiviral activity in combination with remdesivir.

Antibody Therapies (Blood Plasma)
The only antibody currently available for treating COVID-19 is found in the blood plasma of disease survivors.
The only antibody currently available for treating COVID-19 is found in the blood plasma of disease survivors. That’s why the FDA and other federal agencies are investigating blood plasma therapies from recovered COVID-19 patients to treat the disease. These antibodies may be generated on a greater scale eventually, for instance by genetically engineered cows to produce the human antibody. But until that can be developed, human blood remains the only source.

COVID-19 Vaccine Trials
There are 44 potential COVID-19 vaccine candidates as of late March, according to the WHO.
There are 44 potential COVID-19 vaccine candidates as of late March, according to the WHO. Two have moved past the pre-clinical phase and have begun phase 1 clinical evaluations. One is a U.S. study that began March 3, sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The other trial, funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China, was registered March 17. Anthony Fauci, the director of the NIAID, has stated that any successful vaccine will not be available to the public for at least one year due to the rigorous safety and efficacy standards applied to new vaccine trials.

Over-the-Counter COVID-19 Home Treatments
While many of these medications are being tested to treat serious, life-threatening cases of COVID-19, the CDC says that most people who are infected will be able to make a full recovery from home.
While many of these medications are being tested to treat serious, life-threatening cases of COVID-19, the CDC says that most people who are infected will be able to make a full recovery from home. For this reason, the health agency recommends that people have fever-treating over-the-counter medicines available during the outbreak.

There are many over-the-counter fever remedies, including acetaminophen (Tylenol) and NSAID painkillers like ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin). Read the labels carefully and make sure the medicine you choose can treat your symptoms. Be careful not to combine two medicines with the same active ingredient, as this can lead to overdosing. Always check the label before giving medicine to yourself or to minors, and remember that children and adolescents have different needs and dosage requirements.

Home Remedies (Zinc, Vitamin D & C)
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Along with the pharmaceuticals being studied to fight COVID-19, some home remedies may help protect from respiratory infections or reduce the duration of symptoms.

Zinc in sufficient amounts has been shown to reduce the length of some viral infections when taken right away. Studies have shown this using zinc lozenges, syrups, and tablets. The NIH notes that the body needs zinc to create white blood cells that fight infections. However, overdoses can do more harm than good, and this along with all supplements should be taken with the consent of your doctor.

Vitamin D has been studied many times for respiratory infections. The WHO says that people who develop respiratory diseases like tuberculosis and pneumonia are more likely to be deficient in vitamin D.

Vitamin C was put into a phase 2 clinical trial at one Chinese hospital during the outbreak. Researchers hope that as an antioxidant, the vitamin may reduce the lung inflammation COVID-19 can cause, a symptom that may lead to death.

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Coronavirus COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Pandemic Outbreak: 10 Things You Need to Know
Reviewed By: Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Reviewed on 3/27/2020
What Is a Coronavirus?
The coronavirus is a big family of pathogens.
The coronavirus is a big family of pathogens. Some of them cause mild illnesses like the common cold. Others can cause fatal infections. A coronavirus gets its name from how it looks. Under an electron microscope, these pathogens exhibit spikes that resemble the angles of a crown. There are many coronaviruses that only infect animals. Some evolve in their animal hosts to infect humans. The type that infects humans was first identified in the 1960s. Since then, seven human-infecting types of coronavirus have been identified, including the new Coronavirus also known as COVID-2019.

For the latest news updates, facts, and resources, please visit the MedicineNet Coronavirus COVID-19 Health Center.

What Is Coronavirus COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2)?
This novel coronavirus was initially named 2019-nCoV and was also called Wuhan coronavirus because the first infected people came from Wuhan City, Hubei Province in China. Later known as COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2).
On Jan. 7, 2020, Chinese health authorities announced that they had isolated the virus spreading in Wuhan. This novel coronavirus was named initially referred to as 2019-nCoV and was also called Wuhan coronavirus because the first infected people came from Wuhan City, Hubei Province in China, a city of more than 11 million people and a major transportation hub. On February 11, 2020 the disease was officially named COVID-19 and the virus that causes it, officially named SARS-CoV-2. This virus resembles other serious human coronavirus types MERS and SARS in that all belong to the “beta” subgrouping of virus. The CDC notes that MERS and SARS both began as infections in bats before mutating to infect humans.

What Are the Symptoms of Coronavirus COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2)?
Infected people may experience coughing and fever, as well as shortness of breath.
The symptoms of this virus illness resemble other respiratory infections. Infected people may experience coughing and fever, as well as shortness of breath. Some patients have had vomiting, diarrhea, and similar stomach symptoms. The most severe cases have caused pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, and death. According to the CDC, some infected people have few or no symptoms, whereas others may be severely ill or die from the disease. Initial estimates suggest symptoms begin after exposure from 2 – 14 days with an average of 5 days.

How Coronavirus COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Spreads
There is some disagreement about how the Wuhan virus is spreading.
Health experts widely agree that many infected patients had some association with a large live animal/seafood market in Wuhan City, suggesting the disease was first spread from animal-to-human contact. Human-to-human transfer was soon confirmed in China, South Korea, Italy, Iran, the United States, and eventually around the world. The first person to be infected within the United States was an Illinois man in his 60s. His wife became infected while traveling in Wuhan, China. The virus spreads mainly from person to person by droplets produced by coughing and/or sneezing. Occasionally, it is transferred to people when they touch a surface contaminated by virus-containing droplets; some people can spread the infection without showing symptoms.

How Is Coronavirus COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Treated?
Work is underway to develop antiviral medications to combat the illness.
As a newly identified virus, COVID-2019 has no specified treatment. Supportive care is the treatment; a large number of patients (about 16 – 20%) need hospitalization to obtain appropriate care. Work is underway to develop antiviral medications to combat the illness. Meanwhile the CDC says that health care workers should strive to treat the symptoms of an infection through supportive care. Researchers are also trying to develop a vaccine against the virus.

Is There a Vaccine for COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2)?
Health researchers worldwide hope to contribute to the development of a vaccine.
So far, no vaccine has been developed for this newly discovered virus. On Jan. 28, the US Department of Health and Human Services announced that the National Institute of Health has begun to collaborate on the development of a COVID-19 vaccine. Early trials have begun, but it will likely take a year or longer before a safe, proven vaccine can be released to the public, according to HHS officials. The National Health Commission in China is collaborating with various health organizations, including the World Health Organization (WHO), to further study how severe and how contagious this virus may be. By sharing data and continuing to study the illness, health researchers worldwide hope to contribute to the development of a vaccine.

Is the Virus Likely to Mutate?
This is a class of virus that is known to mutate easily.
This is a class of virus that is known to mutate easily. Prior mutations led to the 2002-2003 SARS outbreak, in which a virus native to civet cats mutated to spread the illness to humans. In Saudi Arabia in 2012, a coronavirus that infected camels mutated to become infectious in humans, leading to the MERS outbreak. Currently, researchers have not discovered the original source of the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2)coronavirus, but they suspect it came from wild animals killed and sold for food.

What Can You Do to Protect Yourself?
The WHO offers general guidance about how to prevent Wuhan virus infection.
Based on advice gathered from previous coronavirus outbreaks, the WHO offers general guidance about how to prevent COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) virus infection:

Keep your hands clean frequently with either soap and water or an alcohol-based rub
Cover your mouth anytime you cough or sneeze. Throw away used tissues.
Avoid spending time around people who have a fever or cough.
If you show symptoms of the COVID-19 virus (cough, fever, shortness of breath), tell your doctor right away, and fill your doctor in on your recent travel history.
If you visit an animal market where a coronavirus outbreak is suspected, avoid animals and any surfaces they may have touched.
Make sure any animal product you use in meals is fully cooked. Handle raw meat carefully.
In addition, the CDC recommends you avoid visiting areas where there is an outbreak of this infection and to avoid any close contact with anyone who has visited the outbreak area or shows signs of the infection in the last 14 days. Social distancing of at least 6 feet is also recommended.

How Have Chinese Authorities Responded?
Authorities from China confirmed the identity of the new virus on Jan. 7, 2020, and began working with the WHO on the same day to learn more about the virus.
Authorities from China confirmed the identity of the new virus on Jan. 7, 2020, and began working with the WHO on the same day to learn more about the virus. Chinese authorities have reacted to the virus outbreak with an unprecedented lockdown of Hubei province. The travel restrictions affect millions of people in cities, airports, public transportation, workplaces, and schools have been shut down to prevent further contagion. As of 3/17/2020, the number of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) has markedly reduced and the Chinese are dismantling their emergency hospitals.

How Has the World Responded?
Some other countries have taken steps to prevent the further spread of Wuhan virus.
Countries around the world have taken steps to prevent the further spread of the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. Screening is taking place at airports, events are being canceled, schools are closing, public health officials are urging people to avoid public spaces as much as possible, and self-isolation/self-quarantines and social distancing practices are taking place. With the large outbreaks that have followed in South Korea, Europe (especially Italy) and now the US, officials are hoping that the practices being put in place will help educate the public and slow the spread of this emerging disease.

For the latest news updates, facts, and resources, please visit the MedicineNet Coronavirus COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Health Center.”